Más de 45 mil empresas dejaron de operar en Perú a raíz del COVID en el 2020; sin embargo, ocurrió algo irracional, se crearon más empresas de las que se cerraron: más de 235 mil empresas. Lamentablemente los programas de apoyo financiero como Reactiva Perú y el Fondo de Apoyo Empresarial a la MYPE (FAE-MYPE) no han llegado al sector que realmente lo necesita debido a que muchas MYPEs no cumplen con los requisitos, no son clientes conocidos del banco y no obtienen la calificación crediticia mínima. Por esta razón las ayudas no llegan a cubrir ni si quiera al 10% del total de ellas (Fuente: CCL).

Las MYPEs son alrededor de dos millones de empresas siendo el 95% del total de empresas peruanas, esto quiere decir, que representan el motor económico del Perú donde aportaron nada menos que el 17% del PBI en plena pandemia. También emplean el 45% de la población activa pero con un gran problema: el 90% es informal.

El 15 de mayo se celebra el Día nacional de las MYPEs, y tras más de un año de pandemia, las lecciones financieras ahora tienen mayor protagonismo. Por esto, les dejo 10 estrategias financieras que toda MYPE debe realizar durante alguna crisis.

Antes que nada, debemos tener en cuenta que la única forma de superar las crisis es siendo formal. Sin ello, serás prácticamente inexistente para el Gobierno y para los Bancos.

  1. Ningún tipo de crisis es realmente predecible, pero eso no quita el hecho de estimar proyecciones como prevención.  La planificación financiera es una gran herramienta de control y aprendizaje que debe ser preparada en las empresas. Esto permitirá anticipar posibles eventos que nos ayudarán a tomar mejores decisiones.
  2. No espere una situación crítica para prestarle atención a los gastos del negocio, siempre existen oportunidades de encontrar eficiencias que permitirán ahorros adecuados.
  3. Los problemas no se solucionan con sólo reducir al máximo los gastos, seamos creativos con los ingresos para tratar de maximizarlos con una mejor propuesta de valor. Diversifique su modelo de negocio con nuevas fuentes de ingresos buscando adecuadamente oportunidades para llegar a nuevos clientes.
  4. Mantenga un constante seguimiento de sus cuentas por cobrar, ofreciendo beneficios por pronto pago y evitando atrasos que perjudiquen su liquidez.
  5. El stock de mercadería es un dinero retenido y que pierde valor cada día. Gestione activamente la rotación de sus productos ofreciendo liquidaciones u ofertas para obtener liquidez.
  6. La deuda no debe ser parte de su modelo de negocio, sólo debe ser utilizada para campañas o proyectos específicos, de esta manera modelará su gestión sin depender de ella.
  7. Asigne al menos el 10% de sus ganancias como reserva para soportar cualquier eventualidad. Esto le permitirá contar con un ahorro que pueda compensar la escasez de ventas.
  8. La digitalización hoy en día es una necesidad para las empresas. El uso de canales digitales para agilizar el pago, alianzas comerciales o contar con presencia online permitirá captar nuevos clientes, ahorrar costos y volver tu emprendimiento mucho más visible.
  9. Transmita tranquilidad y fortaleza al recurso más importante de su negocio: las personas. La motivación y fidelidad de sus empleados en tiempos difíciles debe ser apreciado mediante una constante comunicación y buen trato. 
  10. La quiebra es una decisión. No todos los negocios tienen las características suficientes para soportar una crisis por lo que es importante no alargar lo que va a ocurrir. Tome la difícil decisión de cerrar una etapa y volver empezar aprendiendo de los errores pasados sin llegar a perjudicar sus finanzas personales.

Las finanzas son un arte que los emprendedores deben dominar, por eso comparto estas estrategias y otros conocimientos en mi libro “Detrás de emprendimiento”. Descárgalo gratis en www.misfinanzas.pe

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